The House passed the measure by a 108-28 vote.
It will now head to the Senate for debate.
The new measure would call for the creation of a commission to oversee medical marijuana programs at participating academic medical research centers.
Supporters have been touting the bill for years, but it got an extra layer of support this year thanks to Joshua Sharfstein, the state’s health secretary.
If passed, experts predict that patients wouldn’t be able to participate in a medical marijuana program in Maryland until at least 2016.
A participating medical center would need to specify the medical condition or conditions it would treat and the criteria under which patients would be permitted to participate.